ML is a retired registered nurse (RN) who has been given the diagnosis of Stage A heart failure. She knows from her RN education that she will definitely be placed on digoxin as a therapy. She remembers something about halos as something to be attuned to.

  1. Explain the pathophysiology of Stage A heart failure.
  2. What is the rational drug choice for treatment of this individual?
  3. Address the patient’s concern about halos should digoxin be prescribed.
  4. Are there gender considerations related to medication treatment in this scenario? If so, what are they? For example, do men and women differ in their side effect profile and/or complications (for instance, from digoxin)?
  5. Discuss monitoring of the pharmacological agent(s) selected.

Answer: Heart failure is a condition that occurs when the heart muscles fail to pump blood to the body as required……